WiFi P2P协议学习

记录wifi p2p协议的主要知识点,研究主要Action帧的格式以及IE属性。


WiFi P2P概述

WiFi P2P技术基本要求

WiFi P2P技术要求支持P2P的设备具备如下能力:

  1. 至少支持802.11g, 包含支持WPA2安全协议(RSN/WPA2 with AES-CCMP encryption)。
  2. 支持WPS。
  3. 支持WMM(Wi-Fi MultiMedia Quality of Service)。
  4. 可以连接到其他的P2P设备。
  5. 作为GO的能力
    • NOT support P2P communication with 802.11b devices
    • Support WMM AP functionality
    • Support WMM-PS AP functionality
    • Function as WPS internal registrar
    • Form temporary P2P Groups
    • Provide IP address (DHCP) to ONE P2P Client
    • Support P2P Client Discovery
    • Supply SSID and passphrase for manual configuration of legacy client
  6. 作为GC的能力
    • Join existing P2P Group
    • Leave a P2P Group


  1. 5GHz support
  2. P2P Group Owner Functionality
    • Support multiple Client connections
    • Concurrency
    • Cross-Connection
    • Data Distribution
    • Form or re-invoke PersistentP2P Groups
      • Support P2P Invitation Procedure
    • Ability to remove/reject devices from P2P network
    • Coexistence parameters
    • IF 5GHz, support for DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection)
  3. Support of Service Discovery
  4. Ability to be a Managed P2P device
  5. Mechanism to switch P2P function on/off
  6. Mechanism to prioritize selection of P2P Group Owner or Client roles


  1. WiFi P2P V1.2
  2. WPS V1.0
  3. WMM V1.2
  4. WPA2 V3.1

WiFi P2P技术概述

A Wi-Fi P2P network is a non-infrastructure connection of Wi-Fi CERTIFIED devices.

Key features of Wi-Fi P2P networks

  • 与Infrastructure网络相同的一些特征:
    • Full, robust WPA2™ security using AES
    • Typical WiFi data rates (up to 802.11n)
    • Typical WiFi range
    • Support for 2.4GHz and 5GHz devices
    • Simple, secure device authentication and enrollment via WiFi Protected Setup™ (WPS)
    • Excellent co-existence with neighboring networks
    • Compatible with existing WiFi CERTIFIED™ devices
  • Additional features
    • IP address based
    • Automatic device discovery
    • Device service advertisement
    • Support for device power management
    • Support for temporary (one-time) and persistent (many-time) network connections
    • Optional cross-connection to infrastructure network
    • Enterprise manageability

WiFi P2P Framework

  1. A P2P Group is a WiFi P2P network that may include two types of devices
    • P2P Device WiFi CERTIFIED™ device that is compliant with the WiFi P2P specification
    • Legacy device WiFi CERTIFIED™ device that is not compliant with the WiFi P2P specification
  2. P2P devices must be capable of two different roles in a P2P Group
    • P2P Group Owner : An AP-like capability that controls a WiFi P2P Group and enables P2P Device connectivity
    • P2P Client : A WiFi P2P-compliant device that may connect to a P2P Group Owner
  3. Note : Legacy devices may only function as clients in a P2P Group. They see P2P Group Owners as APs.

WiFi P2P Architecture

  1. A P2P Device is the fundamental component of a P2P Group
    • Capable of either an infrastructure or a P2P connection
    • Can always connect with another P2P Device
    • Supports both P2P Group Owner and P2P Client roles
    • Negotiates P2P Group Ownership with other P2P Devices
    • Must be WiFi CERTIFIED™ for WiFi Protected Setup™
    • Must be WiFi CERTIFIED™ for WMM®
    • Must Support P2P Discovery mechanisms
    • Must Support P2P Power Management mechanisms
    • May support Managed P2P Device operation
    • May support WLAN and P2P Group operation at the same time
    • May operate as a member of multiple P2P Groups simultaneously
      • Functionality is out of scope for this spec
  2. A P2P Group is a WiFi P2P network made of at least two WiFi enabled devices
    • One device mustbe a P2P Group Owner
    • The other device(s) are Clients (P2P Clients and/or Legacy Clients)
  3. Two types of P2P Groups
    • 1:1 P2P Group
      • One P2P Group Owner and one Client
    • 1:n P2P Group
      • One P2P Group Owner and n Clients (where n may be any combination of P2P Clients and Legacy Clients)
  4. A P2P Group functions similarly to an infrastructure BSS
    • Has a single SSID (the P2P wildcard SSID) and a single security domain
    • May have only one P2P Group Owner
    • P2P Group Owner has a similar role as an Access Point (AP)
    • Client(s) have similar roles as station(s) (STAs)
  5. Each P2P Group has a unique P2P Group ID
  6. Each P2P Group may be temporary(single-use) or persistent(repeated use)
  7. Key P2P Group Owner capabilities
    • Must provide BSS functionality and services for Clients (P2P and Legacy) associated to a P2P Group
    • Must provide WiFi Protected Setup™ Internal Registrar functionality for a P2P Group
    • May enable facilitated or direct communication between Clients in a P2P Group
    • May support P2P Concurrent Device capability
      • Ability to maintain simultaneous infrastructure (WLAN) connection in parallel with functioning as Group Owner of a P2P Group
    • May also support Cross-Connection (as added capability to P2P Concurrent Device)
      • Ability to provide Clients in a P2P Group with access to a simultaneous WLAN connection
  8. Key P2P Client capabilities
    • Must have the ability to join/function in infrastructure networks as typical STA
    • Must support WPS Enrollee functionality
  9. WiFi P2P protocol communication based on
    • P2P Information Element (P2P IE)
    • P2P Action frame
      • Group Owner Discoverability; P2P Presence; Group Owner Notice of Absence
    • P2P Public Action frame
      • Group Owner Negotiation; P2P Invitation; Device Discoverability; Provision Discovery
    • Extension to 802.11 Management Frames
      • Beacon, Probe Request, Probe Response, Association/Reassociation
  10. Formats utilize the Vendor Specific Information Element and Vendor Specific Action frame in IEEE Std 802.11-2007
    • Each P2P Group has a single SSID and a single security domain
    • Each P2P Group has a unique P2P Group ID
    • WiFi P2P has a WiFi Alliance-specific OUI
    • OUI type indicates a WiFi P2P specification version
  11. A Number of P2P Attributes are defined
    • A Single P2P IE carries one or more P2P Attributes

WiFi P2P Protocol Overview


  1. User discovers P2P Devices in range
  2. User selects which of the discovered P2P Devices to connect to and enters Provisioning information (e.g. WPS PIN)
  3. Negotiate which device shall become P2P Group Owner (AP-like entity)
  4. Use authentication in WPS to ensure that these are correct devices (same PIN)
    • P2P Group Owner supplies P2P SSID & WPA2 PSK using WPS
  5. P2P Group Owner starts P2P Group session and Client joins P2P GroupDevice

P2P Device Discovery

  1. P2P Discovery is comprised of three primary parts:
    • Device Discovery facilitates two P2P Devices arriving on a common channel and exchanging device information
    • Group Formation forms a new P2P Group and determines which P2P Device will serve as the P2P Group Owner
    • P2P Invitation has two uses
      1. Invite a P2P Device to join an existing P2P Group
      2. Invokes a previously formed Persistent P2P Group
    • (Optional)Service Discovery for discovering higher-layer services prior to establishing a P2P device connection
    • Occurs only on three Social Channels(Channel 1,6,11 in the 2.4GHz band)
  2. Uses Probe Request and Probe Response frames to exchange device information
  3. Two P2P-specific Device Discovery states
    • Search state: transmit one or more Probe Request frames on each Social Channel
    • Listen state : wait on a specific Social Channel (the Listen Channel) to receive Probe Request frames
  4. Scan for a P2P Device advertising P2P service
  5. Device transmits one or more Probe Request frames on each Social Channel
    • Probe Request frame contents
      • P2P IE
      • WPS IE
      • SSID field = P2P Wildcard SSID
      • BSSID field = Wildcard BSSID
    • Destination Address
      • Destination Address must be either the Broadcast Address or the P2P Device Address of the listening device
    • Optionally
      • Specific Device Type attribute in the WPS IE, or
      • Specific P2P Device ID attribute in the P2P IE.
  6. P2P Device monitors a specific Social Channel, advertising P2P service
    • Monitoring for Probe Request frame containing
      • P2P IE, P2P Wildcard SSID, Wildcard BSSID, and Destination Address
        • Destination Address matches either Broadcast Address or P2P Device Address of listening device
      • Optionally
        • Device Type value that matches any Requested Device Type attribute in the WPS IE, or
        • Device Address matches the Device Address in the P2P IE Device ID attribute
  7. Listen State restrictions
    • P2P Devices in the Find Phase
      • Must Listen for specific time periods and be constantly available during these periods
    • P2P Devices not in Find Phase
      • May stay in the Listen State for an extended period
        • Should be available to Listen for at least a contiguous period of 500ms every 5s
        • Shorter Listen duration or interruption of Listen State may result in lengthened or unreliable device discovery
  8. Probe Request/Probe Response discovers device type, manufacturer, device name, etc.
  9. One or more P2P IE and WPS IE are included in the Probe Response
    • A probe request intended only for P2P Devices shall include a P2P IE
    • Searches can be narrowed to a specific P2P Device
      • Include the P2P Device ID attribute in the P2P IE
    • Searches can be narrowed to specific device types (i.e., search for all printers)
      • Include one or more Requested Device Type attributes in the WPS IE
    • The WPS IE also allows a P2P Device to advertise human-readable device-specific information such as a meaningful device description

Scan Phase

  1. Collects information about surrounding devices and/or networks on all channels supported by the P2P Device
    • Uses scanning process as defined in IEEE std 802.11-2007
    • Identifies other P2P Devices and established P2P Groups
    • Identifies the best potential Operating Channel for establishing a new P2P Group
    • P2P Devices may scan for P2P Groups and 802.11 infrastructure networks simultaneously
  2. Scan Filter Methods
    • Scan only for P2P Devices and P2P Groups
    • Scan for specific P2P device type(s), e.g., all Printers
    • Scan for specific P2P Device (either by address or friendly name)
  3. Optional Scan Enhancement
    • Use Service Discovery to ensure compatible services exist on a device (e.g., a desired print method or display type)
  4. Used to ensures that two simultaneously searching P2P Devices will arrive on a common channel to establish communications
    • P2P Devices cycle between Listen and Search states
      • P2P Device waits on one of three Social Channels for Probe Request Frames (Listen)
      • P2P Device sends Probe Request Frames on each of the three Social Channels (Search)
    • Time spent in each cycle of the Listen State is randomized to prevent lock-stepping between two devices and ensure convergence


  • Users can select which device to connect to based on its device name, services, and so on
  • If the target P2P Device is not part of a P2P Group, a new P2P Group is formed using the P2P Group Formation Procedure
  • If the target P2P Device is already part of a P2P Group, the searching P2P Device may seek to join the group
    • Use WiFi Protected Setup™ (WPS) to obtain credentials and authenticate
      • WPS handshakes take place on the Operating Channel of the P2P Group Owner

P2P Group Formation

  • Group Formation procedure involves two phases
    1. Determination of the P2P Group Owner
      • Negotiated –Two P2P Devices negotiate for P2P Group Owner role based on their desires/capabilities to be a P2P Group Owner, OR
      • Selected –P2P Group Owner role “established” at formation or at an application-level
    2. Provisioning of the P2P Group
      • Establishment of the P2P Group session using the appropriate credentials
      • Uses WiFi Protected Setup™ to exchange credentials

Special Provisioning Consideration

  1. Completion of P2P Group Formation procedure is required within 15 seconds
  2. Special consideration required to meet the time limit for P2P Group Formation
    • Up to two minutes required for completion of WiFi Protected Setup™ when waiting for user input
  3. P2P Device must obtain any information required to execute provisioning in advance of P2P Group Formation
    • Use the information supplied, during the Listen state, in the WPS ConfigMethods attribute of a Probe Response to determine information to retrieve from user
      • E.g., PIN from a label, PIN from a display, etc
    • P2P Device may trigger the required user action by sending a Provision Discovery Request with the appropriate ConfigMethods bit set

P2P Group Owner Role

  1. All P2P Groups require a P2P Device to take on the role of P2P Group Owner
  2. Some key responsibilities of P2P Group Owners
    • Assigns a globally unique P2P Group ID for the P2P Group at formation
    • Determine the SSID for each P2P Group
    • Select the Operating Channel of the P2P Group
      • Must follow any procedures required for operation in a certain frequency band in a particular regulatory domain
    • Determine the credentials required and be the authenticator for joining a P2P Group
      • Use WPA2-PSK Authentication, AES Encryption, Network Key Type of 64 Hex characters
      • Maintain a WPA-PSK passphrase for delivery to Legacy Clients
    • Serve as the WiFi Protected Setup™ Registrar
    • Be capable of acting as a DHCP server
      • Support IPv4 at a minimum
      • Support assignment of IP address, subnet mask and default gateway
    • Advertise the device information of the P2P Clients connected to a P2P Group

Group Owner Negotiation

  1. Two P2P Devices forming a P2P Group negotiate which will be the Group Owner
    • A P2P Device may decline Group Owner Negotiation for any reason
    • Group Owner negotiation relies on an Group Owner Intent attribute value and a Tie breaker bit to resolve the decision quickly
    • Group Owner Negotiation (and Group Formation) fails if both P2P Devices MUST be the Group Owner
    • P2P Devices remain on the common social channel until Group Owner Negotiation completes
  2. Device that wins the negotiation assumes the AP/Registrar role and becomes the P2P Group Owner


  1. Newly established P2P Group Owner starts a P2P Group session using the credentials determined
  2. Uses the Operating Channel indicated during Group Owner Negotiation
    • If not available, will use another channel from the Channel List
    • P2P Client may have to scan to find the P2P Group Owner if the Operating Channel is not available
  3. WiFi Protected Setup™ sequence executes in the following manner
    • P2P Group Owner serves as the AP with Internal Registrar
      • It shall only allow association by P2P Device with which it is in Group Formation with
      • Since the user has entered the WPS PIN or triggered WPS pushbutton functionality on both devices, the registrar shall send M2 in response to M1
    • P2P Client shall serve as the STA enrollee
      • It shall associate to the P2P Group Owner device with which it is in Group Formation

Autonomous P2P Group

  1. P2P Group Formation starts with determination of the P2P Group Owner
    • P2P group owners may be determined
      • Through Group Owner Negotiation process, or
      • Through configuration (autonomous)
  2. Autonomous P2P Groups
    • P2P Device starts an autonomous P2P Group by assuming the P2P Group Owner role
      • Group characteristics are determined by the P2P Device without negotiation with other devices
    • Some use cases for autonomous P2P Groups
      • Providing a P2P connection for Legacy Client(s)
        • A P2P Group must already exist for a Legacy Device to discover it
      • To offer a Cross Connection to a WLAN
      • Offering / managing higher-level services
        • i.e., public kiosk offering applications or upper layer services

P2P Group Session

Communication within a P2P Group

  1. Communication within a P2P Group shall employ WPA2-Personal security with AES-CCMP as the encryption cipher
    • After a successful association, the resulting temporal keys shall be used to encrypt unicast and broadcast/multicast frames exchanged between the P2P Group Owner and its Clients
    • Same mechanism used in standard 802.11 communications
  2. To support higher layer data services using IP, the P2P Group Owner shall provide IP addresses through a DHCP server (IPv4 minimum)
    • P2P Clients that use IP services shall be capable of acting as a DHCP Client

P2P Group Session Credentials

  1. P2P Group operation closely resembles infrastructure BSS operation per IEEE Std 802.11-2007
    • P2P Group Owner assumes the role of an AP
    • P2P Client assumes the role of an STA
  2. Credentials
    • WPA2-PSK / AES
    • Network Key of 64 hex characters
    • WPA2-PSK pass-phrase for Legacy Clients; at least 8 random ASCII letters/numbers
    • Delivery of a pass-phrase to Legacy Clients that do not support WPS is allowed but implementation is out of scope of the P2P specification
  3. SSID
    • Of the format DIRECT-xy
    • Where xy is two random ASCII letters/numbers
  4. P2P Group ID
    • Assigned by the P2P Group Owner; globally unique for each P2P Group formed
      • Contains the globally unique P2P Device Address of P2P Group Owner
      • Remains the same throughout the life of a P2P Group

P2P Group Owner Responsibilities

  1. Transmit Probe Responses in response to Probe Requests
  2. Transmit beacons advertising
    • the TSF (for timing synchronization)
    • Required operational parameters, supported capabilities, membership and services available within the P2P Group
  3. Respond to any Probe Request Frame containing the P2P IE with a Probe Response Frame containing the P2P IE
    • Set the SSID to the SSID of the P2P Group for all Probe Responses that it sends
    • Include WPS IE in all transmitted Beacon, Probe Request and Probe Response frames
    • Conform to relevant sections of IEEE Std 802.11-2007 when operating at 5GHz

P2P Client Discovery

  • P2P Client Discovery is a capability that enables a P2P Group Owner to advertise the device information for each P2P Client currently connected to a P2P Group
    • Information included in Probe Response frames as part of the P2P Group Info attribute
    • P2P Clients that leave a P2P Group are no longer advertised

P2P Invitation

  1. P2P Invitation
    • P2P Group Owner may invite a P2P Device to become a P2P Client in its P2P Group
    • A P2P Client may invite another P2P Device to join the P2P Group to which it belongs so it may use a supported service
    • A P2P Device may request a provisioned Persistent P2P Group to be invoked
  2. P2P Devices rely on an optional P2P Invitation Procedure signaling mechanism to achieve this invitation
    • P2P Invitation Request frame is transmitted by a P2P Group Owner or a P2P Client in that P2P Group
    • Upon receipt of the P2P Invitation Request, a P2P Device that supports the P2P Invitation Procedure signaling mechanism transmits a P2P Invitation Response frame
    • The decision to accept the invitation is left to the invited P2P Device
      • Invited P2P Devices may also pass the invitation request to higher application layers for evaluation

Persistent Groups

  1. Unlike Temporary P2P Groups that exist for only a single session, a P2P Persistent Group may be re-invoked at a future time to start additional sessions after its initial formation
  2. P2P Persistent Groups may be restarted without repeating Provisioning
    • P2P Devices in a successfully provisioned P2P Persistent Group must store the associated P2P Group ID and Credentials
      • Eliminates the need for users to repeat provisioning such as WPS PIN, etc.
    • P2P Group Owner remains the same in subsequent sessions

Invoking a Persistent P2P Group

  1. A P2P Group Owner may invoke a Persistent P2P Group at any time
    • Autonomously, such as in response to request from a higher layer
    • After a successful P2P Invitation Request and Response exchange with a member of the Persistent Group
  2. A P2P Client may re-invoke a Persistent P2P Group
    • P2P Device must first discover the P2P Group Owner for the Persistent P2P Group
      • The operating channel for the group may not be available so the requesting Device may need to scan the channels in the Channel List to find the P2P Group Owner
    • After Discovery, the P2P Device must then successfully complete a P2P Invitation exchange with the P2P Group Owner

P2P Persistent Group Reconnection

  1. A P2P Group Owner may invoke previously formed P2P Persistent Groups without user intervention
    • Capability advertised via Persistent Reconnect bit in P2P Group capabilities list
    • The P2P Group Owner device may use the Listen state to remain discoverable
  2. A P2P Persistent Group is ended when the P2P Group Owner deletes the stored Credentials for the P2P Persistent Group

P2P Discovery and Group Formation Examples

  1. User and P2P Protocol Interactions


  2. Forming a Group between two P2P Devices


    • User discovers P2P Devices within range
    • User selects a discovered P2P device to connect to and enters Provisioning Information such as a WPS PIN
    • P2P Devices negotiate P2P Group Ownership
      • Most appropriate device becomes P2P Group Owner (e.g. TV)
    • Use authentication in WPS to ensure that the correct devices (WPS PIN) are connected
      • WPS PIN has already been entered to speed provisioning
      • P2P Group Owner (TV) supplies SSID and WPA2 PSK using WPS
    • P2P Group Owner starts P2P Group session and P2P Client joins P2P Group
  3. Adding a P2P Device to an existing Group


    • New P2P Device discovers presence of existing P2P Group
      • P2P Group Owner responds to Probe Request during scan
    • P2P Group Owner provisions credentials to Client using WPS
      • Must use PIN or PBC method
    • New Client joins the P2P Group
  4. Discovering a Device in a P2P Group: Forming a Direct Connection


    • Camera is searching for a Printer that is already in a P2P Group
    • P2P Group Owner responds with P2P Client Info Descriptors of P2P Devices in its Group
      • P2P Client does not respond to Probe Requests
    • Camera may communicate directly with Printer after receiving P2P Device Address to perform Service Discovery, Group Formation, data exchange, etc.
  5. Adding a Device to a Group by Invitation


    • Group Owner searches for a device of a specific type (printer)
    • Printer is in Listen mode and responds to Probe Requests
    • P2P Group Owner invites Printer to join the P2P Group
    • Group Owner supplies SSID and WPA2 PSK using WPS
    • Printer joins the P2P group

P2P State Machine


Figure 6: WFD State Machine

Power Management and WiFi P2P Technology

P2P Power Management

  1. P2P supports power saving mechanisms for P2P Group Owners and P2P Clients
    • Based on legacy PS and WMM-PS power management mechanisms
    • Adapted mechanisms are referred to as P2P-PS and P2P-WMM-PS
  2. Two adaptations allow for P2P Group Owner absence periods
    • Opportunistic Power Save
    • Notice of Absence
  3. Addresses requirements of target use cases:
    • Burst traffic (i.e., file transfer, synchronization, printing)
    • WMM Traffic Streams and other latency-sensitive traffic
    • Absence signaling for off-channel activities (concurrent use, scanning, etc.)

P2P Power Management:Impact on Availability

  1. P2P Power Management saves power at the expense of
    • Reduced P2P Group Owner availability
    • Delays in Discoverability
    • Increased latency in upstream and downstream P2P Client transmissions
  2. P2P Clients may influence the use of P2P Power Saving by submitting a P2P Presence Request
    • A P2P Group Owner shall not use Opportunistic Power Save while it has active P2P Presence Requests

Discovery Considerations

  • Searching devices must be aware that P2P power saving techniques may impact communication between searching and target P2P devices
    • Device Discoverability Responses may take multiple beacon periods

Availability for Discoverability

  • To maintain P2P Device Discoverability, a P2P Group Owner must be present for an availability period called the CTWindow(Client Traffic Window)
    • The P2P Group Owner determines an appropriate CTWindow
      • CTWindow is an integral number of TU and is always less than the beacon interval
      • A P2P Group Owner that desires to be discoverable should select a CTWindow of at least 10 TU
    • P2P Group Owners will signal the CTWindow size and use of Opportunistic Power Save in Beacon frames and, where appropriate, Probe Response frames

Opportunistic Power Save

  • Opportunistic Power Save allows a P2P Group Owner to save power on an opportunistic basis 2016011106.png
  • After the end of each CTWindow, if the P2P Group Owner determines that all connected P2P Clients are in Doze state
    • The P2P Group Owner shall complete delivery of all queued broadcast/multicast frames
    • The P2P Group Owner may then enter Doze state until the next TBTT
  • The P2P Group Owner will remain awake as long as any Client is determined to be awake. A P2P Client is considered awake if:
    • 1) It is in active mode
    • 2) It is in Power Save Mode and has a WMM Unscheduled Service Period in progress or an unanswered PS-Poll

Notice of Absence

  1. P2P Group Owners signal a planned absence with a Notice of Absence
    • May be used to signal a single absence or a periodic absence
    • Periodic absences are either limited in count or continuous (count = 255)
    • Notice of Absence timing may be altered by the P2P Group Owner at any time
  2. Addresses requirements of target use cases. For example:
    • Use a single absence to allow occasional off-channel scanning
    • Use periodic absence to power save
      • When a WMM Traffic Stream is established
      • For concurrent WLAN/P2P Group operation on different channels

P2P Client Power Management

  1. P2P Clients use P2P PS or P2P WMM-PS as a non-AP STA
  2. P2P PS is the same as 802.11 PS except
    • When the Group Owner is using Opportunistic Power Save, P2P Clients may transition out of Power Save mode only at the beginning of a CTWindow
  3. P2P WMM-PS is the same as 802.11 WMM-PS except
    • P2P Devices shall not initiate a frame exchange that cannot be completed prior to the start of a scheduled absence period
    • P2P Clients shall generally not send frames to a P2P Group Owner during periods of absence

Additional WiFi P2P Technology Capabilities

Service Discovery

  • Optional Service Discovery procedure enables advertisement of supported services by higher layer applications (e.g., Bonjour, UPnP, Web Service Discovery) to other P2P devices
    • Frame exchange that can be performed at any time with any other discovered P2P Device
    • Leverages Generic Advertisement Service (GAS) protocol/exchange from IEEE P802.11u
  • Service Discovery can be used to ensure that two devices have compatible services
    • Get list of all services offered by a P2P Device
    • Get information about single or multiple services offered by a P2P Device
    • Communicate an update to the services offered by a P2P Device
  • The decision to perform Service Discovery is implementation-specific and beyond the scope of the P2P spec
  • Service Discovery Query issued by requesting device
    • Via Vendor-Specific content field of GAS Initial Request action frame
  • Service Discovery Response issued by targeted device
    • Via Vendor-Specific content field of GAS Initial Response action frame
  • Service Update Indicator support required for all P2P Devices that support Discovery
    • Counter sent in each Service Discovery Query and Service Discovery Response frame
      • Incremented every time a change occurs in the service information of the P2P Device sending the frame
    • Enables P2P Devices to cache service information of other P2P Devices
      • Receipt of Updated Indicator prompts the receiving device to flush and rewrite the cached service information for the sending device

Concurrency: P2P and WLAN

  • A P2P device that can operate concurrently with a WLAN (infrastructure network) is considered a P2P Concurrent Device
    • Example : Laptop participating as P2P Client and simultaneously using a wireless LAN connection
      • Single radio can manage multiple connections
  • A P2P Group may operate in the same channel (and regulatory class) as a concurrently operating WLAN BSS 2016011107.png

Managed P2P Device Capability

  • Intended to protect Enterprise deployments from accidental creation of security risks by an unaware user of a P2P Device
  • A WLAN AP may optionally manage P2P devices
    • WLAN AP advertises P2P Management capability in Beacon, Probe Response and (Re) Association Response frames
  • A P2P device may optionally be a Managed P2P device
    • P2P Device advertises P2P Management capability in Probe Request and (Re) Assoc Request frames
  • A P2P Device also reports its P2P Device address and P2P Interface addresses to the WLAN AP at association to help with monitoring

Additional WiFi P2P Technology Considerations

WiFi P2P WLAN Coexistence


  • P2P Devices shall coexist well with nearby WiFi networks, both legacy and P2P
    • Follow standard W-Fi Alliance practices for protection of overlapping networks
  • Primary and Secondary P2P Coexistence Parameters provided to assist with fine tuning coexistence behaviors

WiFi P2P Spectrum Coexistence in 5GHz


  • with AP‟s, P2P Devices that may operate as P2P Group Owners in the 5GHz band must be compliant with appropriate country regulations regarding coexistence with radar systems
    • Support for DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection) may be required depending on supported channels.

Summary: Minimum Requirements for WiFi P2P Devices

  • 2.4GHz, 802.11g support
  • Device certified for WPA2, WMM and WPS
  • Ability to connect to other P2P Devices
  • Ability to function as a P2P Group Owner [for one(1) Client connection]
    • NOT support P2P communication with 802.11b devices
    • Support WMM AP functionality
    • Support WMM-PS AP functionality
    • Function as WPS internal registrar
    • Form temporaryP2P Groups
    • Provide IP address (DHCP) to ONE P2P Client
    • Support P2P Client Discovery
    • Supply SSID and passphrase for manual configuration of legacy client
  • Able to function as a P2P Client
    • Join existing P2P Group
    • Leave a P2P Group
  • 5GHz support
  • P2P Group Owner Functionality
    • Support multiple Client connections
    • Concurrency
    • Cross-Connection
    • Data Distribution
    • Form/re-invoke Persistent P2P Groups
      • Support P2P Invitation Procedure
    • Ability to remove/reject devices from P2P network
    • Coexistence parameters
    • IF 5GHz, support for DFS (Dynamic Frequency Selection)
  • Support of Service Discovery
  • Ability to be a Managed P2P device
  • Mechanism to switch P2P function on/off
  • Mechanism to prioritize selection of P2P Group Owner or Client roles

P2P 帧格式

Category Code

P2P Attributes

P2P Capability

P2P Device Info

Group Owner Intent

Configuration Timeout




  • NL80211_CMD_CANCEL_REMAIN_ON_CHANNEL This indicates to the device that it should stay on a given channel for a given time, to implement a P2P listen phase. Can also be canceled, since it is also used to implement off-channel TX for group negotiation or invitation
  • NL80211_CMD_FRAME previously NL80211_CMD_ACTION Transmit a management frame, with channel checking. This can be used during a remain-on-channel phase to transmit frames on that channel, or at other times to transmit on the operating channel. This also allows off-channel transmission, i.e. transmit on a given channel and wait for a response for a given time (including the ability to cancel the wait) which in a sense combines REMAIN_ON_CHANNEL and MGMT_TX into just a single MGMT_TX for some operations.
  • NL80211_CMD_REGISTER_FRAME Allow a userspace application to register for receiving a given type of (management) frame through nl80211, and also replying to it. Applications can also specify a filter so for example they don't have to handle all the different action frames but just a subset. For action frames, a side effect is that the kernel will not reply to unknown action frames when they are registered by userspace. Used by wpa_supplicant for P2P also for probe requests.

    Related events: NL80211_CMD_FRAME , NL80211_CMD_FRAME_TX_STATUS



打印Wifi状态变化情况。 while true; do sleep 1; iwpriv wlan0 stat; done

20/40切换不当,有时也会造成问题。 下 p2p_stop_find 触发切信道,但是切 得有问题。